Blood work revealed a BUN of 120 mg/dl and creatinine of 9.1 mg/dl; routine blood work, including tests of renal function, done 3 months earlier was normal. Original moisture content of the raw capsicum used in this work was 94 g/100 g sample and fresh samples were used in order to keep its original structure. However in order to reduce the experimental runs, higher temperature (20, 45 and 60 °C) did not use for samples containing moisture 5 g/100 g sample, while lower temperature (−20 and −40 °C) did not use for the samples containing moisture 15 g/100 g sample. Most of the dried fruits and vegetables contain moisture 15 to 5 g/100 g sample, vitamin c powder thus these two levels are used in this study. The experiments were performed into 3 moisture levels: one as its original state (moisture: 94 g/100 g sample) and others two were at its dried state (moisture: 15 and 5 g/100 g sample). Evaluation of the two models through the statistical error parameters showed that ANN model gave a good predictive and estimation capabilities than RSM. Two drug-inorganic composites involving vitamin C (VC) intercalated in Mg-Al and Mg-Fe layered double hydroxides (LDHs) have been synthesized by the calcination-rehydration (reconstruction) method.
Studies of VC release from the LDHs in deionised water and in aqueous CO32− solutions imply that Mg3Al-VC LDH is a better controlled release system than Mg3Fe-VC LDH. Analysis of the release profiles using a number of kinetic models suggests a solution-dependent release mechanism, and a diffusion-controlled deintercalation mechanism in deionised water, but an ion exchange process in CO32− solution. However, the degradation mechanism for ascorbic acid depends on several factors and is therefore specific for an individual system. The objective of this research was to determine the effect of deliquescence and deliquescence lowering, storage RH conditions, and formulation on the chemical stability of different forms of vitamin C: ascorbic acid (A), sodium ascorbate (Na), and calcium ascorbate (Ca). The effects of co-formulation of these water-soluble forms of vitamin C with ascorbyl palmitate (P) (a lipophilic form of vitamin C) and dehydroascorbic acid (DHAA, a degradation product) on moisture uptake and vitamin C stability were also determined. Vitamin C is added to foods as ascorbic acid or one of its salt forms (commonly sodium ascorbate or calcium ascorbate), or ascorbyl palmitate (a lipophilic form of vitamin C).
Vitamin C is frequently incorporated into foods and premixes, and its concentration is declared on nutrition fact labels. Since these vitamin C forms differ in solubility and, therefore, RH0, it is important to understand how each form will interact with water individually and in mixtures. Therefore, ANN can be recommended for use optimization method in the pressure hot water extraction. It is, therefore, important to control vitamin C stability in foods and supplements. Since vitamin mixes may be subjected to varying RH conditions during formulation, processing, packaging, storage, and distribution, an understanding of the impact of water-solid interactions on chemical stability within vitamin C powders is important for ensuring delivery of the vitamins in their primary active forms. In addition, a phenomenon known as deliquescence lowering has been witnessed in mixtures of crystalline vitamins. Previous research has also demonstrated the effect of degradation products on deliquescence lowering and food ingredient stability. Recently, the impact of deliquescence on vitamin B1, B6, and sodium ascorbate stability in powder systems was characterized. Deliquescence lowering is a reduction in the RH where the solid to solution transition occurs, termed RH0mix, when deliquescent compounds are mixed.
Production of a hygroscopic degradation product of vitamin C, such as dehydroascorbic acid (DHAA), could potentially result in greater deliquescence lowering and increased chemical reactivity within the system. LA says: The Ordinary L-Ascorbic Acid is absolutely amazing! Ascorbic acid degradation was found to increase with increasing moisture content. In particular, evidence has suggested that solid phase and solution phase ascorbic acid degradation differ, resulting in different end products. It is known that water plays an important role in influencing degradation rates of ascorbic acid, and degradation of solid phase ascorbic acid ensues when moisture is introduced. Additionally, moisture present in solid vehicles enhanced the degradation of vitamins A, B1, and C in pharmaceuticals. Deliquescence is a first order phase transformation from solid to solution that occurs at a certain relative humidity (termed RH0) that is specific to that crystalline solid, and has been linked with chemical stability of sensitive food ingredients. Whole Capsicums were washed with tap water and stored at 20, 5, −20 and −40 °C for determining vitamin C stability. Powders of 50 g were kept in air tight plastic containers and stored at 45, 20, 5, −20 and −40 °C, while air tight metal cell was used for storage at 60 °C.